Biotechnology is already becoming one of the budding fields of science in field of technology, and a large number of nations have set their sights on it as a long-term development pillar. Biotechnology has already proven to be an option of growth in multiple sectors such as pharmaceuticals, veterinary, cosmetics, environmental, agricultural, energy, which make it an opportunity for the developing countries in search of a boost for progress of their economies. Giving its wide range of application and the leapfrogging of current innovation technology, which allows further to exploit its potential.
Colombia- Blessed with biodiversity
Colombia is truly unique in one respect: it is very, very rich in life forms. In fact, it is considered among the world’s four richest countries in biological diversity. This means that there are probably more animal and plant species here than in any other country on the planet regardless of size. It is then in biotechnology that a country like Colombia, which occupies second position after brazil in world diversity, with around 10%of flora and fauna of the planet, and can find possibilities of great impact for its economic growth and technological development. For example, according to world bank data for year 2014,Colombia allocated about 0.2% of GDP for this purpose, an amount significantly lower than the world average of about 2 %,and much lower than number one country in this regard, South Korea, which investment in R&D is above 4%of GDP.
In this quest the government, academics and the country must work together to transform the enormous biodiversity into the factory of knowledge and innovation that translates into solution to both the local and global problems. Thus ,in the commitment to research as a driving force for development, and in particular concerning the emerging biotechnology, intellectual right plays a important role for its progress. Due to the fact that tools for protection of invention, such as patent, greatly influence the decision of the companies to or not invest their capital in particular sector, even more in biotechnology, which is one of those with highest cost in R&D in product development and process design.
It is possible to evidence in different countries a closely related upward trend between R&D spending and filing of patent application. This is clearly visible when comparing the number of patent application filed in Colombia, in 2014,260 patent applications were filed by residents and 1898 by non-residents.
It is a visionary change from the Colombian government that promotes integration of the private and public sector in R&D, which is supported by the intellectual property system that provides adequate legal protection to invention and compensates the economic effort made in an innovation. In this sense, the challenge for Colombia in the upcoming years is to recognize and take advantage of the immense potential for scientific research that it possesses, especially in terms of biotechnology ,in order, to have in future the ability to offer products and services with high standards of quality added value, derived from a sustainable exploitation of natural resources that goes hand in hand with policies ensuring the technical, legal, and economic condition conducive to its realization.